Modern Phytomorphology

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Morphological changes and damages of indicator lichens from Sakhalin Island


Alexander K. Ezhkin

Lichen morphological changes, abnormalities and damages are very important parameters that define the general vitality of lichen communities. Correct detecting of lichen abnormalities helps to make an accurate assessment of the disturbance level of ecosystems. Main morphological changes and damages of indicator lichens of the Sakhalin Island are discussed.



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